Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid and paratyphoid fevers)
Published: 06.10.05 Updated: 07.10.2005 09:00:28
Hans Blystad, Lars Blad, Johan Giesecke, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Sweden, the Steering Group of the project Building a Network for Infections Disease Surveillance in the Baltic Sea Region
Salmonellosis is a notifiable disease in all the countries in the region.
Only a proportion of the actual numbers of cases of salmonellosis are likely to be diagnosed and reported. Reported incidence rates are therefore likely to be misleading low in the entire region.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s most countries in the region experienced an epidemic of S. Enteritidis transmitted by infected eggs and poultry products. Incidence rates have continued to rise in most of the region during the late 1990s and early 2000s. In Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland the majority of cases has been acquired abroad, and the increase seen during the last few years is mainly caused by travellers infected in areas of the world where salmonellosis is more common. In Denmark and Germany more than 80% of cases are domestically acquired. In Poland, Russia and the Baltic countries, the overwhelming majority of cases are domestically acquired.
Apart from travellers to areas where salmonellosis is more common, no specific high-risk group for salmonellosis can be identified.
Prevention of food-borne salmonellosis includes implementation of public health measures at farms, commercial food processing and routine food and personal hygiene measures at home. In addition, an effective Food and Water Control Authority is important to prevent transmission of salmonella. Travellers to countries with high incidence of salmonellosis should be advised how to reduce the risk of contracting salmonellosis. Food handlers should be educated in food hygiene. All countries in the region have adopted these preventive measures.