Epidemiological Situation in the Russian Federation in 2001

 1 Published: 07.05.04 Updated: 20.08.2004 09:26:31
G. G. Onischenko

The sanitary-epidemiological situation in the country remained stable in 2001.

During the year 2001, 32.4 million cases of infectious diseases were registered, which was 19% less than in 2000. This was primarily due to decrease of influenza and acute upper respiratory tract infections.

A high coverage of children immunisation in the country has been achieved. As of January 1st, 2001, 95.3-98.5% of children had been vaccinated on time against diphtheria, mumps, measles and poliomyelitis. Supplemental vaccination against poliomyelitis was carried out in the Chechen Republic and the Ingushetia Republic, covering nearly 200 000 children up to 5 years of age.

These preventive measures contributed to 2.0 - 2.3 times decrease in the incidence of 20 diseases in 2001, including mumps, measles and pertussis.. No cases of poliomyelitis of wild poliovirus etiology were registered.

In 2001, the lowest incidence of measles for the whole period of registration was reported (1.45 cases per 100 000). In 28 regions the disease was not registered, and in 30 regions 1 to 4 cases of measles were reported.

The incidence of diphtheria increased 19% in the Russian Federation, predominantly due to significant increase of cases in St. Petersburg, Leningrad, Smolensk and Samara oblasts. The disease was not registered in 52 federal territories of the Russian Federation, and there were less than 5 cases in 28 territories.

In 2001 the morbidity of dysentery decreased 38.3%, typhoid fever 36.0%, syphilis 13.5% and gonorrhoea 11.1%. The number of outbreaks of acute intestinal infections decreased from 107 to 71 and the number of cases - two times.

Decrease of vaccine-preventable infections was notified in the first two months of 2002 - for diphtheria 18% and pertussis 74%.

Decrease of the morbidity of certain nosologic forms of acute intestinal infectious diseases was noted for the first wo months of the year. Bacterial dysentery decreased 34.4%, other salmonella infections 5.6% and typhoid fever 66.7%. Some increase in the incidence of acute intestinal infections was notified due to defined and non-defined etiology 22.2% and 3.5% respectively.

The incidence of HIV-infection continued to increase. In 2001 totally 85 474 new cases were diagnosed, which is 1.5 times higher comparing with the previous year. The majority of infected persons were in the age-group 18-25 years.

By the 15th of April 2002, 190 598 HIV-positive persons have been registered in Russia, 2 948 of them were children under 14 years of age. On 28 territories of the Russian Federation the number of HIV-infection cases has increased over one thousand. 1 880 children were born to HIV-positive mothers. In the majority cases, these persons were young female drug users who have rejected their children. There are more than 34 000 HIV-positive persons in prisons, and the number of HIV-positive teenagers among prisoners has grown significantly.

For the first time in ten years the morbidity of acute viral hepatitis B and C decreased in 2001 - viral hepatitis B 17.2% (incidence 34.9 per 100 000) and viral hepatitis C 20.4% (incidence 16.5 per 100 000).

At the same time, an unfavourable hepatitis B morbidity situation was notified in several regions: the Republic of Tyva and St. Petersburg reported an incidence of 71.1 and 51.8 per 100 000, respectively. Novgorod, Bryansk and Vladimir oblasts reported increase of morbidity 98.6%, 39.8% and 22.9%, respectively.

The incidence of hepatitis B in January and February 2002 was 4.28 per 100 000, which was 37.9% less than in the same period last year. Decrease of the incidence rate was registered on 73 federal territories of the Russian Federation. At the same time, in Ivanovsk, Vladimir, Tula, Novosibirsk and other oblasts as well as in Primorski krai, the incidence was 1.5-2 times higher than average.

In 2001 decrease of hepatitis C morbidity was registered in 58 regions (Kostroma, Orenburg, Penza et al) of the country. In several regions - Smolensk, Kaliningrad oblasts, the Mary-El Republic and Altaisky krai - the incidence rates exceeded the federal average: 46%, 65%, 56% and 38%, respectively.

During the first two months of 2002 incidence of viral hepatitis C decreased
58.6% (1.5 per 100 000 in comparison to 3.6 in the same period in 2001).

Increase of viral hepatitis A incidence, that has been observed since 1999, continues. In 2001 incidence was 78.5 per 100 000, which was 38.3% more than in 2000 (56.7 per 100 000). In 2001 viral hepatitis A incidence increased in 66 regions: in Dalnevostochny Federal okrug 32.3%, in Privolzhsky Federal okrug 31.7%, in North-West Federal okrug 21.4%, Ural Federal okrug 15.6% and Southern Federal okrug 10.1%.

In the first two months of 2002 viral hepatitis A incidence decreased 28.9% in comparison to the same period of 2001 and was 10.6 per 100 000.

The epidemiological situation of infections with environmental foci continues to be strained. In 2001 over eight thousand cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome were notified, half of them in Bashkortostan and Udmurt Republics. An outbreak with 62 cases of this infection was notified in Voronezh oblast in December 2001. Incidence of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrom increased 25.0% in the first two months of 2002; totally was reported 794 cases comparing with 639 cases in the same period 2001. Approximately 80% cases were diagnosed on endemic territories in Privolzhsk Federal okrug, primarily in Bashkortostan Republic and Udmurt Republic.

Incidence of tick-borne encephalitis cases increased 9.0%.

In 2001 the epidemiological situation of rabies sharply deteriorated. Twenty-two persons died from this infection compared to seven persons in 2000. Ten of these cases were reported in the Northern Osetia (Alania) and Dagestan Republics. During the first two months of 2002 four persons died from rabies in Russia.